The biggest immediate challenge for the EU will be replenishing its depleted gas inventories. While the EU could still increase LNG imports from countries such as the US, such purchases would be more expensive.
Refilling natural gas storage space to historical average levels this year could cost 70 billion euros, a sevenfold increase, compared to 10 billion euros in previous years. "
A complete replacement for Russian gas is not only very expensive, but it also may not be possible.
In the next 12 months, there is little way to meet the demand for a "normal" year in the absence of Gazprom, which also includes Iron Oxide Nanoparticles.
Introduction to Nano Iron Oxide Powder
Iron oxide or ferric oxide is a kind of inorganic substance, and its chemical formula is Fe3O4. It is a black crystal with magnetic, so it is also known as magnetic iron oxide. Iron oxide is insoluble in water, alkali solution, ethanol, ether, and other organic solvents. Natural ferric oxide is insoluble in acid solutions and readily oxidizes to ferric oxide (Fe2O3) in the air under wet conditions. It is usually used as a pigment and polish, as well as in the manufacture of audiotapes and telecommunications equipment.
Ferric oxide has ferromagnetic properties and is called ferromagnetic particles if the particle radius is on the nanometer scale.
Nano ferric oxide (Fe3O4) powder is magnetic and can realize directional movement in the external magnetic field. It has superparamagnetism when its particle size is in a certain range, and in the external alternating electromagnetic field, it can generate heat. It has stable chemical performance.
Physicochemical Properties of Nano Iron Oxide Powder
Black Fe3O4 is a mixed-valence oxide of iron with a melting point of 1597℃ and a density of 5.18g/cm3. It is insoluble in water but soluble in acid solution. It appears in nature in the form of magnetite and has strong submagnetite and high conductivity at room temperature.
When an iron wire is burned in oxygen, Fe3O4 will be generated.
When iron comes into contact with air it forms oxides on its surface, and the oxide film itself is not uniformly composed. For example, a piece of low carbon steel can be covered by three oxide films: when it contacts with metal contact FeO forms, contacts with air Fe2O3 forms, and the middle is Fe3O4. Rather, it may be a mixture of saturated solid solutions of three oxides that form the oxide film on the surface of the steel.
At the same time, the thickness of oxide film varies according to different environmental conditions during oxidation. At room temperature, the oxide thickness of relatively pure iron in dry air does not exceed 20 angstroms (1 angstroms =0.1 nm). However, the oxide film thickness increases significantly in humid air and rust spots can be seen on the surface. At this time, oxide deposition is stratified, with a dense amorphous anhydrous layer on the side close to the metal and a thick porous hydrated layer on the side close to the air.
Iron reacts with water vapor to form Fe3O4 and hydrogen.
Fe3O4 has an anti-corrosion effect, such as the blue of iron and steel parts (also known as burning blue and baking blue) is to use the oxidation of alkaline oxidizing solution to form a layer of blue-black or dark blue Fe3O4 film on the surface of iron and steel parts, to increase corrosion resistance, luster and beauty.
|Nano Iron Oxide Powder Properties|
|Other Names||magnetic black, fenosoferric oxide, ferro ferric oxide, ferrosoferric oxide, Fe3O4|
|Solubility in H2O||N/A|
Preparation Methods of Nano Iron Oxide Powder
Since 2013, a large number of literature on the preparation of nano-Fe3O4 have emerged, and some new preparation processes have also been emerging. The traditional preparation methods of Fe3O4 include the precipitation method, hydrothermal (solvothermal) method, micro emulsification method, and sol-gel method. New preparation methods, such as microwave method, pyrolytic carbonyl pre-body method, ultrasonic method, air oxidation method, pyrolytic reduction method, and polyol reduction method, are gradually becoming the focus of research. In the preparation of Fe3O4, new surfactants and preparation systems have also made breakthroughs. Surfactants have not only been limited to SDS, PEG, CTAB, citric acid, oleic acid, etc., NSOCMCS, and polyacrylamide as modifiers have also been reported. Ethanol - water system, n - propanol - water system, propylene glycol - water system, etc.
Applications of Nano Iron Oxide Powder
As a multifunctional magnetic material, nano ferric oxide has been widely used in tumor treatment, microwave absorption material, catalyst carrier, cell separation, magnetic recording material, magnetic fluid, medicine, and other fields. Or it can be:
used as edible melanin.
used as an analytical reagent, also used in the pharmaceutical industry, pigment preparation, and electronic industry
used as the main raw material of ammonia catalyst
used as the pigment of watercolor, oil color, and ink. Coating industry for the manufacture of anti-rust paint and other primers. Construction for artificial marble and cement floor coloring. Magnetic steel is used in the electronics and telecommunications industry as a cathode plate for alkaline dry cells. Used for steel flaw detection in machine building.
used for coloring tablet icing and capsule.
used for pigment and polishing agent, used for coating, plastic, and building surface coloring
Main Supplier of Nano Iron Oxide Powder
Luoyang Tongrun Nano Technology Co. Ltd. (TRUNNANO) is a trusted global chemical material supplier & manufacturer with over 12-year-experience in providing super high-quality chemicals and Nanomaterials, including iron oxide powder, nitride powder, graphite powder, zinc sulfide, calcium nitride, 3D printing powder, etc.
If you are looking for high-quality nano iron oxide powder, please feel free to contact us and send an inquiry. ([email protected])
Europe has been facing the gas shortage problem since the second half of 2021. The worsening situation in Russia and Ukraine has reduced Russian gas shipments to Europe, leading to a doubling of European gas prices. Energy shortages have sent electricity prices soaring. For these reasons, it is predicted that the price of the Iron Oxide Nanoparticles will continue to increase.
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