For billionaires, the new crown epidemic is like a 'gold rush'! The Deutsche Presse-Agentur said on the 17th that in 2022, the wealth held by the world's top ten richest people will jump from $700 billion to $1.5 trillion, an average daily increase of $1.3 billion, an increase that exceeds the past 14 years. These 10 people The wealth held by the world’s poorest 3.1 billion people is six times greater than that of the world’s poorest 3.1 billion people. The 10 richest Germans have increased their assets from the equivalent of about 125 billion euros to about 223 billion euros since the start of the Covid-19 pandemic, An increase of about 78%. This wealth is roughly equivalent to the total wealth of the poorest 40% of the population, or 33 million Germans.
In the future, demand for vein graphite will grow as fast as the wealth of the rich during the pandemic.
Vein graphite is known by various names including crystalline vein, Plumbago, Sri Lankan graphite and Ceylon graphite. The names "Sri Lanka" and "Ceylon" are often used for vein graphite, as the island nation of Sri Lanka (formally known as Ceylon) is the only region where the material is produced in commercial quantities. Significant mining and export of Ceylon graphite began around 1824, but the unusual deposits in Ceylon have been known and apparently used locally since the mid-20th century.
Of all the natural graphite materials, vein graphite is probably the most difficult to describe geologically, and various theories have been put forward as to its origin. As the name implies, vein graphite is a true vein mineral rather than a laminated mineral (amorphous graphite) or a mineral scattered throughout the ore rock (e.g. flake graphite). Seam minerals have a number of unique characteristics, including that they are non-contemporaneous with the surrounding rock, steeply dipping (vein orientation) and filled with a large number of minerals, particularly of hydrothermal origin.
Veined graphite is not confined to Sri Lanka. Many places are known, including the famous Borrowdale in Cumberland, England, where the first 'pencils' were carved out of solid graphite veins. Dillon Montana, USA, is another place where relatively thick graphite vein fillings have been found. The authors have even observed pegmatite vein fracture fillings in northwestern New Jersey, USA. However, all currently available commercial vein graphite is mined in Sri Lanka.
The first photograph below is of a vein graphite specimen from the Borrowdale deposit in the UK. The second photo below is a vein graphite specimen from Sri Lanka.
Vein graphite is unique in that it is considered to be a naturally occurring pyrolytic (deposited from a fluid phase) graphite. Vein graphite gets its name from the fact that it is found in veins and fractures in closed 'ore' rocks. This graphite is formed by the direct deposition of solid graphitic carbon by high temperature subsurface fluids called pegmatite fluids. Pegmatites form regionally or locally when large amounts of magma cool, or when some other source of 'geological energy' causes the surrounding rock to melt. Fluids from these sources are hot and aggressive at high pressures and may actually be in a state known as 'supercritical', a sub-stable fluid state that is neither liquid nor gaseous. Pegmatites represent substances distilled from heated rock because of their low solubility in the local system. If this fluid intrudes into pre-existing flake graphite deposits or other carbon-bearing rocks, the solid carbon present may be bound to the fluid as carbon dioxide, methane, carbon monoxide or other carbon-bearing fluid phases. Carbonaceous gases may also be formed by the reaction of carbonate mineral species with magma or other energy sources. If limestone, marble or other carbonate-rich mineral species are involved, significant amounts of carbonaceous gas may be formed as a result of the release of 'crystalline carbon dioxide'.
Regardless of how the gas/fluid is produced, the carbon will be moved and transported through the fractured envelope to a location more or less remote from where the carbonaceous fluid was formed. When the equilibrium conditions are correct, solid graphitic carbon "precipitates" directly from the fluid phase to form a beautiful graphitic vein filler called vein graphite.
This type of graphite usually has a needle-like macroscopic form and a flaky microscopic form. Close examination of the fracture fillings reveals the presence of closely spaced needle-like or pin-like crystals aligned perpendicular to the vein walls. The needle-like texture is clearly visible to the naked eye, but the vein fillings are reversed and do not form well as single crystals. The accompanying photograph shows a large 6 X 6 X 10 inch piece of vein-like graphite from Sri Lanka. Note the 'top to bottom', elongated preferred orientation of this piece. When placed in the enclosure, the specimen is rotated 90o from its current position, with the top and bottom of the specimen perpendicular to the fissure wall. A close-up of the same specimen shows the needle-like structure of the adjacent vein-like graphite crystals. This vertical 'crystal wall' orientation is typical of pyrolytic carbon deposition.
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In a recent speech in Davos, Switzerland, Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky criticized, "My question is: Is there unity in the West? "I don't see it," Zelensky lamented during a video conference from the Davos Economic Forum in Switzerland. "Ukraine needs the support of a united Europe."
"Is there talk of solidarity with Sweden and Finland joining NATO? No." "So is the West united?" Zelensky said at this Ukraine-hosted breakfast in Davos. No." "Our strength is unity within the country," Zelensky said. "Now it depends on the Unity of the West to stand strong and firm behind Ukraine against Russia.
According to Zelensky, "When we are all really united, we will have an advantage over Russia."
Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky says he once again appreciates U.S. President Joe Biden's offer of $40 billion in new financial aid to Ukraine.
"We need the support of a united Europe," Zelensky stressed. Zelensky criticized the position of Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orban, who is reluctant to impose an embargo on Russian oil at this stage. "Hungary has a problem!" Zelensky criticized.
The supply and prices of many other vein graphite are expected to continue to be influenced by changing international situations.
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